FDA Approves Galliprant, a New Animal Drug for Osteoarthritis in Dogs

FDA Approves Galliprant, a New Animal Drug for Osteoarthritis in Dogs

March 21, 2016
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today announced the approval of Galliprant (grapiprant tablets), a new animal drug intended to control pain and inflammation associated with osteoarthritis in dogs.

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a condition where cartilage – the protective material that cushions a joint – breaks down over time, causing the bones to rub against each other. This rubbing can permanently damage the joint and cause pain, inflammation, and lameness. Older and overweight dogs are at a higher risk of developing OA.

A new treatment option for dogs with OA, Galliprant is a prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) EP4 receptor antagonist; a non-cyclooxygenase inhibiting, non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). All NSAIDs carry certain risks, including vomiting, diarrhea, not eating/eating less, and lethargy. These drugs must be prescribed by a licensed veterinarian, because professional expertise is needed to diagnose and provide guidance in the control of OA pain.

Other NSAIDs that are FDA-approved for use in dogs include deracoxib (Deramaxx), carprofen (Rimadyl, Novocox, Carprieve, Quellin, Carprofen), meloxicam (Metacam, Loxicom, Orocam, Meloxidyl, Meloxicam), and firocoxib (Previcox).

The application for Galliprant is sponsored by Aratana Therapeutics.

Stem cell banking for dogs

Cultured stem cells from your dog can be used for arthritis or cancer treatment in the future. Other diseases are being researched for this treatment.

How to get stem cells from your dog and then bank them:
The StemInsure service provides banked stem cells that can be grown to supply a lifetime of stem cell therapy for dogs.

The process is
Collect only 5 grams of fat (about the size of a grape).
Collect fat at spay, neuter, or any procedure where your vet uses anesthesia.
Vet-Stem processes and banks stem cells for future culturing (growing) and use.

Reasonable up front processing cost (see your veterinarian for specific pricing).
Only $50 per year banking (storage) fee for the StemInsure sample after the first year.
Costs are spread out over time.
Avoid a separate surgical fat collection in the future.
Provide treatment options for current applications as well as future applications of stem cells.
One fat collection per patient can provide a lifetime of stem cell therapy.

Important Facts for Dog Owners: Continue reading Stem cell banking for dogs

Arthritis & exercise

Kinematic motion analysis of the joints of the forelimbs and hind limbs of dogs during walking exercise regimens
Peter J. Holler, Mag med vet; Verena Brazda, Mag med vet; Barbara Dal-Bianco, Mag med vet; Elisabeth Lewy, DVM; Marion C. Mueller, DVM; Christian Peham, Dr techn; Barbara A. Bockstahler, DVM
Project Group Dog, Movement Science Group Vienna, Clinical Department of Small Animals and Horses, University of Veterinary Medicine, A 1210 Vienna, Austria. (Holler, Brazda, Dal-Bianco, Lewy, Mueller); Project Group Dog, Movement Science Group Vienna, Section for Physiotherapy and Acupuncture Clinic for Surgery and Ophthalmology, Clinical Department of Small Animals and Horses, University of Veterinary Medicine, A  1210 Vienna, Austria. (Peham, Bockstahler)
Address correspondence to Mr. Holler (peter.holler@vetmeduni.ac.at).

Objective”To assess forelimbs and hind limb joint kinematics in dogs during walking on an inclined slope (uphill), on a declined slope (downhill), or over low obstacles (cavaletti) on a horizontal surface and compare findings with data acquired during unimpeded walking on a horizontal surface.

Animals”8 nonlame dogs (mean ± SD age, 3.4 ± 2.0 years; weight, 23.6 ± 4.6 kg).

Procedures”By use of 10 high-speed cameras and 10 reflecting markers located on the left forelimbs and hind limbs, joint kinematics were recorded for each dog during uphill walking, downhill walking, and walking over low obstacles or unimpeded on a horizontal surface. Each exercise was recorded 6 times (10 s/cycle); joint angulations, angle velocities and accelerations, and range of motion for shoulder, elbow, carpal, hip, stifle, and tarsal joints were calculated for comparison.

Results”Compared with unimpeded walking, obstacle exercise significantly increased flexion of the elbow, carpal, stifle, and tarsal joints and extension in the carpal and stifle joints. Only uphill walking caused increased hip joint flexion and decreased stifle joint flexion; downhill walking caused less flexion of the hip joint. During obstacle exercise, forward angle velocities in the elbow and stifle joints and retrograde velocity in the tarsal joint changed significantly, compared with unimpeded walking. Joint angle acceleration of the elbow joint changed significantly during all 3 evaluated exercises.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance”These evidence-based data indicated that each evaluated exercise, except for downhill walking, has a specific therapeutic value in physical therapy for dogs.

July 2010, Vol. 71, No. 7, Pages 734-740
doi: 10.2460/ajvr.71.7.734

Arthritis treatment with adequan

Arthritis & Adequan as Treatment
Signs of Arthritis
Reluctance to walk, run, climb stairs, jump or play
Lagging behind on walks
Reluctance to extend rear legs
Low activity
Aggressive or withdrawn behavior
Other personality or behavioral changes

Risk Factors
Overweight dogs
Large or giant breeds
Over the age of 5
Breed inherited traits, such as hip dysplasia
Levels of high activity for long periods of time
Joint trauma

Canine arthritis occurs in your dog’s joints. A healthy joint consists of cartilage that covers and protects the ends of the bones in a joint. The cartilage has no nerves; when it touches the cartilage of another bone, your dog feels no pain. However, arthritis causes the cartilage to wear away. This exposes the bone, which has many nerves. So when two bones touch each other, your dog feels pain. This pain can greatly affect your dog’s quality of life.
Adequan® Canine (polysulfated glycosaminoglycan) is a prescription, water-based, intramuscular, polysulfated glycosaminoglycan (PSGAG) that helps prevent the cartilage in your dog’s joint from wearing away. It helps keep the cartilage healthy and intact, so that the bone in the joint cannot touch other bones.

Adequan® Canine (polysulfated glycosaminoglycan) is administered two times a week for four weeks. The drug is injected intramuscularly to ensure it reaches the critical parts of the joint. It goes to work in the joint in about two hours and stays in the joint for about three days. With Adequan® Canine you should see signs of improvement within four weeks.

Using Pharmaceuticals To Treat Joint Disease – Clinical Evidence Shows Success
By Lester Mandelker, DVM, Dipl. ABVP
As published in Veterinary Forum, April, 1992
A recent study in horses by Michael Collier, DVM, Davis Clark, DVM, et al at Oklahoma State University revealed that Adequan does penetrate synovial fluid when given intramuscularly. This was tested by labeling the agent with tritium. This research concluded that Adequan given intra muscularly (IM) “distributes to the blood, synovial fluid and to the articular cartilage within two hours … and at 96 hours post injection, levels compatible with relevant enzyme persisted in cartilage and bone.”

Furthermore, three articles on canine joint diseases and hip dysplasia in a veterinary journal in 1991 reviewed the current status of joint diseases and all three articles stated that therapy with Adequan improved joint function and reduced disease states. They stated, “While the use of polysulfated glycoaminoglycan (Adequan) in small animals with degenerative joint disease are cause for optimism it must be viewed critically until objective information is obtained.” (Compendium; David Clark, DVM, Sept. 1991, page 1445.)

Further evidence appeared in the Fall/Winter 1991 issue of Cornell Institute News which revealed that Adequan appeared clinically to reduce hip dysplasia in a controlled study of dogs. In summary, the article says, “Adequan has the potential to prevent hip dysplasia in genetically predisposed dogs.”

Finally, in the recent 1992 North American Veterinary Conference proceedings (pages 308, 310, 325), Brian Beale, DVM, from the University of Florida reported, “Adequan has been shown experimentally to preserve articular cartilage following meniscectomy” and “very young dogs may benefit from the cartilage sparing effects of the polysulfated glycoaminoglycans.” He added, “this drug is purported to have anti-inflammatory and antienzymatic qualities which allow it to relieve many of the clinical signs associated with degenerative joint disease and maintain the health of the remaining articular cartilage (chondroprotection).”