House dust exposure mediates gut microbiome Lactobacillus enrichment and airway immune defense against allergens and virus infection
Kei E. Fujimuraa,1,Tine Demoorb,1,Marcus Raucha, Ali A. Faruqia, Sihyug Jangb,Christine C. Johnsonc, Homer A. Bousheyd, Edward Zorattie,Dennis Ownbyf, Nicholas W. Lukacsb,2, and Susan V. Lyncha,2
Edited by Ralph R. Isberg, Howard Hughes Medical Institute/Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, and approved November 19, 2013 (received for review June 6, 2013)
Early-life exposure to dogs is protective against allergic disease development, and dog ownership is associated with a distinct milieu of house dust microbial exposures. Here, we show that mice exposed to dog-associated house dust are protected against airway allergen challenge. These animals exhibit reduced Th2 cytokine production, fewer activated T cells, and a distinct gut microbiome composition, highly enriched for Lactobacillus johnsonii, which itself can confer airway protection when orally supplemented as a single species. This study supports the possibility that host–environment interactions that govern allergic or infectious airway disease may be mediated, at least in part, by the impact of environmental exposures on the gastrointestinal microbiome composition and, by extension, its impact on the host immune response.
Continue reading Exposure to Dogs & allergies
Human Contacts with Oral Rabies Vaccine Baits Distributed for Wildlife Rabies Management — Ohio, 2012
April 12, 2013 / 62(14);267-269
Baits laden with oral rabies vaccines are important for the management of wildlife rabies in the United States (1). In August 2012, the Wildlife Services program of the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service began a field trial involving limited distribution of a new oral rabies vaccine bait in five states, including Ohio. The vaccine consisted of live recombinant human adenovirus type 5 vector, expressing rabies virus glycoprotein (AdRG1.3) (Onrab). A previously used oral rabies vaccine consisting of a live recombinant vaccinia vector, expressing rabies virus glycoprotein (V-RG) (Raboral V-RG) (2,3), was distributed in other areas of Ohio. To monitor human contacts and potential vaccine virus exposure, surveillance was conducted by the Ohio Department of Health, local Ohio health agencies, and CDC. During August 23–September 7, 2012, a total of 776,921 baits were distributed in Ohio over 4,379 square miles (11,341 square kilometers). During August 24–September 12, a total of 89 baits were reported found by the general public, with 55 human contacts with baits identified (some contacts involved more than one bait). In 27 of the 55 human contacts, the bait was not intact, and a barrier (e.g., gloves) had not been used to handle the bait, leaving persons at risk for vaccine exposure and vaccine virus infection. However, no adverse events were reported. Continued surveillance of human contacts with oral rabies vaccine baits and public warnings to avoid contact with baits are needed because of the potential for vaccine virus infection. Continue reading Human Contacts with Oral Rabies Vaccine Baits
Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2010 Feb 26; 59(7): 185-90;
Presumptive abortive human rabies – Texas, 2009,
“Rabies is a serious zoonotic disease. Recovery has been well documented in only 6 human patients worldwide. 5 of those patients had received rabies vaccinations before illness; one had not received rabies vaccination but survived infection after prolonged intensive care. In most of these survivors, moderate to profound neurologic sequelae occurred. Continue reading Presumptive abortive human rabies – Texas, 2009,
Texas A&M , UT MD Anderson Team Up to Treat Canine Lymphoma
HOUSTON – A new immunotherapy for companion dogs with advanced-stage non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) has been shown to improve survival while maintaining quality of life, according to a study published in the journal Scientific Reports. The study resulted from a collaboration between The University of Texas MD Anderson Children’s Cancer Hospital in Houston and Texas A&M University College of Veterinary Medicine in College Station. Continue reading Canine Lymphoma treatment
Gene defects in dogs and people cause a progressive, inherited blindness called Retinitis Pigmentosa (XLRP). Gene therapy treatment developed at the University of Pennsylvania was able to treat this disease in dogs.
“While the exact disease mechanism of the RPGR form of XLRP is still unknown, the researchers were able to successfully treat dogs with two different RPGR mutations. The mutations disrupt photoreceptors in different ways, but both ultimately cause them to become useless for vision. While this form of blindness is rare in dogs, it is common in humans. Patients with XLRP usually begin to lose night vision as children and become almost totally blind by middle age. ” Continue reading Progressive blindness (XLRP) treatment
The reported number of cases of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, is thought to have increased in the UK over the past decade, but consistent surveillance data are lacking. Here the prevalence of B. burgdorferi in ticks attached to pet dogs was examined – using them as sentinels for human disease risk. Dogs give a good indication of the exposure of their human owners to infected ticks, since they largely share the same environment and visit the same outdoor areas. Continue reading Increase in Lyme disease in U.K.
Rabies is a virus that affects the central nervous system in mammals and is almost always transmitted through saliva when an infected animal bites an uninfected animal or person. Rabies is invariably fatal if left untreated.
Effective vaccines are available to protect people and pets. Wildlife accounted for more than 90 percent of all reported rabies cases each year in the United States. Several different variants of the rabies virus exist in this country, and all variants are capable of infecting mammals, including humans. Raccoons, bats, and skunks are
responsible for most reported cases, but foxes and coyotes also commonly transmit the disease.
Continue reading Oral Rabies Vaccination Program in the East